Marseille ( / m ɑːr s eɪ / ; French: [maʁsɛj] ( listen )  , locally [mɑχsɛjə] ; Provençal Marselha [maʀsejɔ, maʀsijɔ] ), Also Known in English as Marseilles , is a city in France . The capital of the Bouches-du-Rhône department and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region , Marseille is France’s south coast, is the country’s second Largest city , after- Paris, with a population of 852,516 in 2012, [1] and an area of ​​241 km 2 (93 sq mi), the 3rd-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon . [3]

Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Massalia [4] ( Greek : Μασσαλία , Massalía ), [5] [ page needed ] [6] Marseille was the most important trading center in the region and the main commercial port of the French Republic . Marseille is now France’s largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture , together with Košice , Slovakia , in 2013. It hosted theFIFA World Cup 1998 and the UEFA Euro 2016 , and will be the European Capital of Sport in 2017. The city is home to several campuses of Aix-Marseille University and part of one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in France, the Metropolis of Aix- Marseille-Provence .


Marseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the center of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village on the outskirts of Callelongue of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis , are the Creeks , a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord -like inlets. Further east still are Sainte-Baume (1,147 m (3,763 ft) mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon and the French Riviera . To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mont Sainte Victoire . To the west of Marseille is the artist artists’ colony of l’Estaque ; Further west are the Blue Coast , the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta . The airport lies at Marignane on the Étang de Berre . [7]

The city’s main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière ) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Reformed quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Fort Saint-Nicolas Fort on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Further in the Bay of Marseille is the Friuli archipelago which includes four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Castle of If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial center of the city intersects with the Canebière at St Ferréol street and the Bourse Center (the main shopping mall). The center of Marseille has several pedestrianized areas, most notably St Ferréol Street, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d’Estienne-d’Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Town Hall. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th district are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west of the 7th district, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame-de-la-Garde . The railway station – Marseille Saint-Charles StationNorth of the Center Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard of Athens to the Canebière. [7]


Marseille has a Mediterranean climate ( Köppen Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 ° C (54 ° F) during the day and 4 ° C (39 ° F) at night. The weather in the Marignane airport (35 km (22 mi) from The average temperature in the city is 27 ° C (81 ° F) in July. [8]

Marseille is officially the largest city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in France is around 1,950 hours. It is also the largest city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation, especially thanks to the Mistral , a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhone Valley that occurs mostly in winter and that weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco , a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert . Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.

The temperature was 40.6 ° C (105.1 ° F) on July 26, 1983 during a heat wave, the lowest temperature was -14.3 ° C (6.3 ° F) on February 13, 1929 during a strong cold wave, but 100 ° F ( 38 ° C) or 20 ° F (-7 ° C) temperatures are uncommon.

[ hide ]Climate data for Marseilles (Longchamp observatory) 43 ° 18’21.2 “N 5 ° 23’37.1” E (sunshine hours 1961-1990)
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 21.2
Average high ° C (° F) 11.8
Daily mean ° C (° F) 8.4
Average low ° C (° F) 4.9
Record low ° C (° F) -10.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.4
Average precipitation days 6.1 5.1 4.9 6.3 4.6 3.3 1.4 2.7 3.8 6.3 5.5 5.8 55.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 67 65 64 63 59 62 69 74 75 77 68.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150.0 155.5 215.1 244.8 292.5 326.2 366.4 327.4 254.3 204.5 155.5 143.3 2835.5
Source :, [9] Météo France 1971-2000 raw observations for Longchamp observatory, extremes 1881-31 December 2004 (sun and humidity 1961-1990 at Marignane) [10]
[ hide ]Climate data for Marignane (Marseille Provence Airport) (1981-2010) 43 ° 26’18.4 “N 5 ° 12’51.9” E
month Jan Feb Mar Apr may Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Average high ° C (° F) 11.4
Daily mean ° C (° F) 7.2
Average low ° C (° F) 2.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5.3 4.5 3.9 6.0 4.5 2.9 1.3 2.7 4.5 6.2 5.9 5.5 53.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 151 166 230 240 288 329 366 327 257 189 154 138 2,853
Source: Metereological data for Marseille-Marignane, from 1981 to 2010 November 2015


A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA [LIA] ( ΜΑΣΣΑ [ΛΙΑ] ), dated 375-200 BC, during the Hellenistic period of Marseilles, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis on the obverse and a lion on the reverse.

Marseilles was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by Phocaea (modern Foça , Turkey ). It est devenu the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized area of southern Gaul . The city-state sided with the Roman Republic against Carthage during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean even as Rome expanded into Western Europe and North Africa. However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar’s Civil War , in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar .

Marseille continues to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire . The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel . It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, but its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sacked by the Crown of Aragon in 1423. The city’s fortunes are rebounded with the ambitious building projects Rene of Anjou, Count of Provence, who strengthened the city’s fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance , which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa and the Holy Roman Empire .

Marseille lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseilles in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid century. In 1792 the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and was the birthplace of France’s national anthem , La Marseillaise . The Industrial Revolution and the Establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century, the German Empire was occupied by the German Wehrmacht in November 1942 and during World War II . French colonies, such as French colonies, such asFrench Algeria .


Port Marseille is a major French center for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, seaport and airport). Marseille Provence Airport is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine The Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France’s large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000. [11] Marseille is also France’s second largest research center with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University . citation needed ] As of 2014 , the Marseille metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $ 60.3 billion , or $ 36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity).[12]

Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with Metropolitan France . The Old Port is replaced by the Port of Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and has a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis , have recently been redeveloped with funds from the European Union . Fishing remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is fed by the local catch; A daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.

The economy of Marseilles and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage , which is located in the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer . Some 45,000 jobs were added to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy. [13] 100 million tons of freight passes through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in Europe and Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. [14] The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408TEU and new infrastructures have already reached the capacity to 2M TEU. [15] Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the main industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials , plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. citation needed ] Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a canaland thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France’s leading center of oil refining.

Companies, services and high technologies

In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. citation needed ] The Marseille region is home to 90% of which are small and medium enterprises with less than 500 employees. [16] [ full citation needed ] Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM , giant container-shipping; Maritime company of expertise (Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Airbus Helicopters , an Airbusdivision; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; Provence , the local daily newspaper ; RTM, Marseille’s public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corsica Mediterranean (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a wide range of services and services.

Marseille is home to three main technopoles : Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities). [17] [18]

Tourism and attractions

The port is also an important arrival for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships. [13] With its beaches, history, architecture and culture, Marseille is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012. [19] Marseille is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. citation needed ] The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. citation needed ] They take place in three main sites, The Pharo Palace ,The Palace of Congresses and Exhibitions (Parc Chanot) and the World Trade Center . [20] In 2012 Marseille hosted the World Water Forum . Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive. New buildings, museums, public spaces and real estate projects to improve the city of life ( 26th Centennial Park , Old Port of Marseille, [21] numerous places in Euromediterrannee) to attract firms and people. Marseille municipality acts to develop Marseille as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theaters, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries .

From Joliette neighborhood ( old docks ), Docks, Newport, Euroméditerranée business district ( CMA CGM Tower ) and surrounding areas.


Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004. [22] However, Marseille’s unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%. [23]


The city of Marseille is divided into 16 municipal districts , which are themselves informally divided into neighborhoods (111 in total). The boroughs are grouped in pairs, in 8 sectors, each with a mayor and council (like the boroughs in Paris and Lyon ). [24]

Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by sector. There are 303 councillors in total, two-thirds sitting in the councils area and one third in the city council.

From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille was a socialist and communist stronghold. The socialist Gaston Defferre was consecutively re-elected six times as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the RDSE . Jean-Claude Gaudin of the right-wing UMP was elected mayor in 1995. Gaudin was re-elected in 2001 and 2008.

In recent years, the Communist Party lost HAS MOST icts of strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the far-right National Front HAS RECEIVED significant support.

At the last municipal election in 2008, Marseilles was divided between the northern boroughs and the tributary of southern parts of the city, allowing for a narrow re-election of the UMP administration.

The cantons of Marseille:

Marseille is also divided into 12 cantons , each of them returning two members of the General Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône departement .


Mayor Term start Term end Party
Simeon Flaissières  ( en ) 1895 1901 Socialist
Marius-Justin-Albin-Hector Curet 1901 1902 Independent
Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot  ( en ) 1902 1908 Progressive Republican
Emmanuel Allard 1908 1910 Progressive Republican
Clément Lévy  ( en ) 1910 1910 Independent
Bernard Cadenat 1910 1912 SFIO
Jean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot  ( en ) 1912 1914 Progressive Republican
Eugene Pierre  ( en ) 1914 1919 Republican Independents
Simeon Flaissières  ( en ) 1919 1931 SFIO
Simon Sabiani 1931 1931 Republican Independents
Georges Ribot  ( en ) 1931 1935 Radical
Henri Tasso 1931 1939 SFIO
Nominated administrators 1939 1944
Gaston Defferre 1944 1946 SFIO
Marcel Renault 1946 1946 Independent
Jean Cristofol 1946 1947 PCF
Michel Carlini 1947 1953 FLR
Gaston Defferre 1953 1986 SFIO , PS
Jean-Victor Cordonnier  ( en ) 1986 1986 PS
Robert Vigouroux 1986 1995 KVD
Jean-Claude Gaudin 1995 incumbent DL , UMP


Historical population
year Pop. ±%
1801 111.100
1851 195.350 + 75.8%
1881 360.100 + 84.3%
1911 550.619 + 52.9%
1931 606,000 + 10.1%
1946 636.300 + 5.0%
1954 661.407 + 3.9%
1962 778.071 + 17.6%
1968 889.029 + 14.3%
1975 908.600 + 2.2%
1982 874.436 -3.8%
1990 800.550 -8.4%
1999 798.430 -0.3%
2006 839.043 + 5.1%
2011 850.636 + 1.4%


Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot . By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France. [25] [26] [ page needed ]

Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city’s population was of Italian origin; [27] Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975; [28] Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; North Africans (both Arab and Berber ) in the inter-war period ; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; the pied-noirs from the former French Algeria in 1962; and then fromComoros . In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people. [27]

Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy. [29] Marseille also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenian populations of France. Other major communities include Maghrebis , Turks , Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese . [30]

In 1999, in several boroughs, about 40% of the young people were born (at least one immigrant parent). [31]

Since 2013 immigrants from Europe, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities are Romanians and Poles. [32]

Largest groups of foreign residents
Nationality Population (2011) [33]
 algeria 37.673
 tunisia 32,800
 Morocco 30,000
 turkey 12.283
 italy 9.094
 poland 8.227
 romania 7.134
 Portugal 6,988
 Spain 5.002
 bulgaria 4,902
Place of birth of the city of Marseille in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
78.9% 21.1%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth 1 EU-15immigrants 2 Non-EU-15 immigrants
0.9% 8.8% 2.1% 9.3%
Place of birth of residents of the metropolitan area of Marseille in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
81.2% 18.8%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth 1 EU-15immigrants 2 Non-EU-15 immigrants
0.7% N / A% N / A% N / A%
This group is made up largely of French settlers, such as pied-noirs in Northwest Africa , followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country in France in 1999, when it was a person born in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, statistics. 
2An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. The children are not listed as immigrants.


Major religious communities in Marseille include:

  • Roman Catholic (405,000)
  • Muslim (200,000)
  • Armenian Apostolic (80,000)
  • Jewish (80,000, making Marseille the third largest Jewish community in Europe)
  • Protestant (20,000)
  • Eastern Orthodox (10,000)
  • Hindu (4,000)
  • Buddhist (3,000). [34]


Marseille is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France. [35] Today it is a regional center for culture and entertainment with an important opera house , historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants.

Marseille has a large number of theaters, including the Auction, the Gymnasium and the Toursky Theater. There is also an extensive arts center in La Friche , to form a match factory behind the St-Charles station. The Alcazar  ( fr ) , until the 1960s a well known music-hall and theater theater , has been completely remodeled behind its original facade and now houses the central municipal library. [36] Other music venues in Marseille are L’Embobineuze and GRIM .

Marseille has also been important in the arts. It has-been the birthplace and home of Many French writers and poets, Including Victor Gélu  ( fr ) , Valère Bernard  ( fr ) , Pierre Bertas , Edmond Rostand and André Roussin . The small harbor of Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille est devenu a favorite haunt for artists, Including Auguste Renoir , Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from His home in Aix ), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy .

European Capital of Culture

See also: Marseille-Provence 2013

Marseille served as the European Capital of Culture for 2013 along with Košice. [37] Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits. [38] The European Capital of Culture was also the opportunity to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille and around, including the iconic MuCEM designed by Rudy Ricciotti .

Tarot of Marseille

The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the Tarot of Marseilles since the 1930s-a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B-P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called Tarot (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being from Marseille , it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court of Gébelin . The name Tarot of Marseille (Hammer used the name former Tarot of Marseille) Was used by contrast to other kinds of Tarot Such As Tarot of Besançon ; These names were simply associated with cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking). [39]

Another local tradition is the making of santons , small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provencal Christmas creche . Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; It is currently held in the Cours d’Estienne d’Orves, a large square off the Old Port.


Marseille’s main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opera . Located near the Old Port and the Canebiere, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyonand Bordeaux . In 1919, it was almost completely destroyed, leaving only the original stone colonnade and peristyle of the facade. [40] [41] The classical facade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Decostyle, the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year. [42]

Since 1972, the National Ballet of Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit .

Popular events and festivals

There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Basket Festival in June. On June 21, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of the Festival of Music . Music from all over the world. Being a free event, many Marseille residents are waiting.

Marseille hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride , an international LGBT event, 10 July-20. [43] At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival. [44] At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac takes place. In October, the Southern Fiesta offers many concerts of world music. [45]

Hip hop music

Marseille is also known in France for its hip hop music . [46] Bands like IAM originated from Marseille and initiated the rap phenomenon in France. Known Other groups include Fonky Family , Psy 4 de la Rime (Including rappers Soprano and Alonzo ) and Keny Arkana . In a different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System .


Feet packages
  • Bouillabaisse is the most famous seafood dish of Marseille. It is a fish stew containing at least three types of local fish: typically red scorpionfish ( Scorpaena scrofa ); sea ​​robin (fr: gurnard ); and European conger (fr: conger ). [47] It can include gilt-head bream (fr: dorado ); turbot ; monkfish (fr: monkfish or anglerfish ); mullet ; gold silver hake (fr: whiting ), and it usually includes shellfish and other seafood such assea ​​urchins (fr: urchins ), mussels (fr: mussels ); velvet crabs (fr: currants ); spider crab (fr: spider crabs ), plus potatoes and vegetables. In the traditional version, the fish is served on a separate plate of the broth. [48] The broth is served with rust , mayonnaise made with egg yolk, olive oil, red bell pepper, saffron, and garlic, spread on pieces of toasted bread, or crusts . [49] [50]In Marseille, bouillabaisse is rarely made for fewer than ten people; the more people who share the meal, and the more different fish that are included, the better the bouillabaisse. [51]
  • Aïoli is a sauce made from raw garlic, lemon juice, eggs and olive oil, served with boiled fish, hard boiled eggs and cooked vegetables. [49]
  • Anchoïade  ( fr ) is a paste made from anchovies, garlic, and olive oil, spread on bread or served with raw vegetables. [49]
  • Bourride  ( en ) is a soup made with white fish (monkfish, European sea bass, whiting, etc.) and aioli. [52]
  • Fougasse is a flat Provencal bread, similar to the Italian focaccia . It is traditionally baked in a wood oven and sometimes filled with olives, cheese or anchovies. quote needed ]
  • Marseille Shuttle  ( en ) are, in the words of food writer MFK Fisher , “little boat-shaped cookies, tough dough tasting vaguely orange peel, smelling better than they are.” [53]
  • Panisse  ( fr ) is chickpea flour boiled into a thick mush, allowed to firm up, then cut into blocks and fried. [54]
  • Pastis is an alcoholic beverage made with aniseed and spice. It is extremely popular in the region. [55]
  • Foot packs is a dish prepared from sheep’s feet and offal. [52]
  • Pistou is a combination of crushed fresh basil and garlic with olive oil, similar to the Italian pesto . Pistou Soup Pistou in a broth with pasta and vegetables. [49]
  • Tapenade olives, capers, and olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added). [56]

Films set in Marseille

Main article: List of films set in Marseille

Marseille has been the setting for many films, mostly produced in France or Hollywood .

Marseille in television

The French television series The most beautiful life is set in an imaginary neighborhood , The Mistral , of Marseille. It is filmed in the Panier district of Marseille.

The Netflix series Marseille is set in the city in the 2010s.

Main sights

Marseille is listed as a major center of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest.

Central Marseille

Most of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include: [57] [58]

  • The Old Port or Old Port, the main harbor and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas and Fort Saint-Jean ) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafes line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbor is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazis in 1943.
  • The Hotel de Ville (City Hall), a Baroque building dating from the 17th century.
  • The Center Bourse and the adjacent St Ferreol district street (including rue de Rome and rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille.
  • The Porte d’Aix , a triumphal arch commemorating French victories in the Spanish Expedition .
  • The Hotel-Dieu, to form hospital in The Basket , transformed into an InterContinental hotel in 2013.
  • The Old Charity in The Basket , an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget Brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house , it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a coffee. It also houses the Marseille International Poetry Center. [59]
  • The Cathedral of St. Mary Major or La Major, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu . The present day cathedral is a gigantic building in Romano-Byzantine style. A romantic transept , choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time.
  • The 12th-century parish church of St. Lawrence and adjoining 17th-century chapel of St. Catherine, on the quayside near the Cathedral.
  • The Abbey of St. Victor , one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its fifth -century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Hellenic burial ground, later used for Christianmartyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a medieval tradition , [60] every year at Candlemas a Black Madonna from the crypt is the carried in procession along rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, Followed by a mass and the distribution of ” shuttles ” and green votive candles .


In addition to the two in the Center of the Old Charity, described above, the main museums are: [61]

  • The Museum of Civilizations of Europe and the Mediterranean (MuCEM) and the Mediterranean Villa were inaugurated in 2013. The MuCEM is devoted to the history and culture of European and Mediterranean civilizations. The adjacent Mediterranean Villa, an international center for cultural and artistic interchange, is partially constructed underwater. The site is linked by footbridges to the Fort Saint-Jean and to the Panier . [62] [63]
  • The Regards de Provence Museum, opened in 2013, is located between the Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeure and the Fort Saint-Jean. It occupies a converted port building constructed in 1945 to monitor and control potential sea-borne health hazards, in particular epidemics. It now houses a permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence. [64]
  • The Museum of Old Marseille , housed in the 16th-century Diamond House, describing everyday life in Marseille from the 18th century onwards.
  • The Museum of Roman Docks preserves in situ the remains of Roman commercial warehouses, and has a small collection of objects, dating from the Greek period to the Middle Ages, which were uncovered on the site or retrieved from shipwrecks.
  • The Marseille History Museum , dedicated to the history of the town, located in the Center Bourse. It contains remains of the Greek, and Roman history of Marseille and the best preserved hull of a 6th-century boat in the world. Ancient remains of the Hellenic are listed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the Jardin des Vestiges .
  • The Cantini Museum , a museum of modern art near the Palace of Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille by Picasso .
  • The Grobet-Labadie Museum , opposite the Palais Longchamp, houses a rare collection of European art objects and old musical instruments .
  • The 19th-century Palais Longchamp , designed by Esperandieu, is located in the Longchamp Park . Built on a large scale, this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The water games marks and masks the entry point of the Canal de Provence into Marseille. Its two wings houses the Museum of Fine Arts in Marseille (a fine arts museum), and the Natural History Museum (Museum of Natural History of Marseille).
  • The Borély Castle is located in the Parc Borély , a park off the Bay of Marseille with the EM Heckel Botanical Garden , a botanical garden . The Museum of the Decorative Arts, Fashion and Ceramics  ( en ) opened in the renovated castle in June 2013. [65]
  • The Museum of Contemporary Art in Marseille  ( fr ) (MAC), a museum of contemporary art, opened in 1994. It is devoted to American and European art from the 1960s to the present day. [66]
  • The Marseillais Regional Museum  ( en ) in Château-Gombert, devoted to Provencal crafts and traditions. [67]

Outside central Marseille

The Château d’If

The main attractions outside the city center include: [58]

  • The 19th-century Basilica of Our Lady of the Guard , an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built by architect Esperandieu in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers panoramic views of Marseille and its surroundings. [68]
  • The Stade Velodrome , the home stadium of the city’s main football team, Olympique Marseille .
  • The Habitation Unit , an influential and iconic modernist building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1952. On the third floor is the gastronomic restaurant, The Belly of the Architect. On the roof is the contemporary gallery MaMo opened in 2013.
  • The Docks of Marseilles , a 19th-century warehouse. [69]
  • The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port. [70]
  • The Corniche, a picturesque waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille. [70]
  • The beaches at the Prado, Red Point, Goudes, Callelongue, and The Prophet. [71]
  • The Calanques, a beautiful mountainous area of ​​outstanding natural beauty accessible from Callelongue, Sormiou, Morgiou, Luminy, and Cassis. Calanques National Park became France’s tenth national park in 2012. [72] [73]
  • The islands of Friuli archipelago in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of Chateau d’If was one of the settings for The Count of Monte Cristo , the novel by Alexandre Dumas . [74] The neighboring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater . The site of a former quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.

Education and research

A number of the faculties of the three universities that include Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille:

  • University of Provence Aix-Marseille I
  • University of the Mediterranean Aix-Marseille II
  • University Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille III

In addition Marseille has three great schools :

  • Central School of Marseille part of Centrale Graduate School
  • School for Computer Science and New Technologies
  • KEDGE Business School

The main French research bodies including CNRS , INSERM and INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology ( CIML ), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus and at the Timone Hospital site (known for work in microbiology ). Marseille is also home to the IRD headquarters , which promotes research into issues affecting developing countries.


International and regional transport

The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport , located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012. [75] An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west ( A7 ), Aix-en-Provence in the north ( A51) ), Toulon ( A50 ) and the French Riviera ( A8 ) to the east.

Marseille Saint-Charles Station is Marseille’s main railway station. It will operate in Aix-en-Provence, Briançon , Toulon, Avignon , Nice, Montpellier , Toulouse , Bordeaux, Nantes , etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and half hours from Lyon. There sont également TGV lines to Lille , Brussels, Nantes, Geneva and Strasbourg as well as Eurostar services to London. In addition, the night train ( Intercity Night ) from Luxembourg and Strasbourg stops here we icts way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris to Nice reserves the Station Blancarde .

There is a new long-distance bus station adjacent to the city of Bouches-du-Rhône , including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne . The city is also served by other regional stations in the east and the north of the city.

Marseille has a large ferry terminal , the Maritime Station , with services to Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia.

Public transport

Marseille is connected by the Marseille Metro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and The Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère (2.5 km (1.6 mi) and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turntile system, with automated automated booths. Both lines of the Metro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three buses rapid transit Subway to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy, Captain Gèze – Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves, La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jerome).

An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the tram , [76] opened in 2007, go from the CMA CGM Tower towards Les Caillols.

As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed “The bike”, was launched by the city council in 2007. [77]

A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to Estaque. [78] There are also ferry services and boat trips from the Old Port to Friuli , the Calanques and Cassis.


The city has a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city’s football club , Olympique de Marseille , which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Cup in both 1999 and 2004. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie . The club’s home, the Stade Vélodrome , which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team . Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup , 2007 Rugby World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2016 . The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII and Marseille Vitrolles Rugby . citation needed ]Marseille is famous for its important petanque activity, it is even renown as the petanque capital . [79] In 2012 Marseille hosted the Pétanque World Championship and the city hosts every year the World Marseillaise petanque , the hand petanque competition.

Marseille. The wind conditions in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. citation needed ] Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille has been the host of 8 (2010) French Match Race events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world’s best sailing teams to Marseille. J-80 racing yachts are two different types of yachts that are used in the sport of sailing. Increased number of points towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille. The city was also considered as possible for the 2007 America’s Cup . [80]

Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating . Marseille has three golf courses . The city has several gyms and several public swimming pools. The Pharo and the Pierre Puget Garden. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille-Cassis International Classic . quote needed ]


Marseille was the birthplace of:
  • Pytheas (4th century BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer
  • Petronius (1st century AD), novel novelist and satirist
  • Pierre Demours (1702-1795), physician
  • Jean-Henri Gourgaud , aka. “Dugazon” (1746-1809), actor
  • Jean-Baptiste Benoît Eyriès (1767-1846), geographer, author and translator
  • Desiree Clary (1777-1860), wife of King Carl XIV Johan of Sweden , and therefore Queen Desiree or Queen Desideria of Sweden
  • Sabin Berthelot (1794-1880), naturalist and ethnologist
  • Adolphe Thiers (1797-1877), first president of the Third Republic
  • Etienne Joseph Louis Garnier-Pages (1801-1841), politician
  • Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), caricaturist and painter
  • Joseph Autran (1813-1877), poet
  • Charles Joseph-Eugene de Mazenod (1782-1861), bishop of Marseille and founder of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate .
  • Lucien Petipa (1815-1898), ballet dancer
  • Joseph Mascarel (1816-1899), mayor of Los Angeles
  • Marius Petipa (1818-1910), ballet dancer and choreographer
  • Ernest Reyer (1823-1909), opera composer and music critic
  • Olivier Émile Ollivier (1825-1913), statesman
  • Victor Maurel (1848-1923), operatic baritone
  • Joseph Pujol, aka. ” The Petomaniac ” (1857-1945), entertainer
  • Charles Fabry (1867-1945), physicist
  • Edmond Rostand (1868-1918), poet and dramatist
  • Pavlos Melas (1870-1904), Greek army officer
  • Louis Nattero , (1870-1915), painter
  • Vincent Scotto (1876-1952), guitarist, songwriter [81]
  • Charles Camoin (1879-1965), fauvist painter
  • Henri Fabre (1882-1984), aviator and inventor of the first seaplane
  • Frédéric Mariotti (1883–1971), actor
  • Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), composer and teacher [82] [83]
  • Berty Albrecht (1893-1943), French Resistance , War Cross
  • Antonin Artaud (1897-1948), author
  • Henri Tomasi (1901-1971), composer and conductor
  • Zino Francescatti (1902-1991), violinist
  • Fernandel (1903-1971), actor
  • Marie-Madeleine Fourcade (1909-1989), French Resistance , Commander of the Legion of Honor
  • Eliane Browne-Bartroli (Eliane Plewman, 1917-1944), French Resistance, Croix de Guerre
  • César Baldaccini (1921-1998), sculptor
  • Louis Jourdan (1921-2015), actor
  • Jean-Pierre Rampal (1922-2000), flautist
  • Alice Colonieu , (1924-2010), ceramist
  • Paul Mauriat (1925-2006), orchestra leader, composer
  • Maurice Béjart (1927-2007), ballet choreographer
  • Régine Crespin (1927-2007), opera singer
  • Ginette Garcin (1928-2010), actor
  • André di Fusco (1932-2001), known as André Pascal , songwriter , composer
  • Henry de Lumley (born 1934), archaeologist
  • Sacha Sosno (1937-2013), sculptor
  • Jean-Pierre Ricard (born 1944), cardinal, archbishop of Bordeaux
  • Georges Chappe (born 1944), cyclist
  • Jean-Claude Izzo (1945-2000), author
  • Denis Ranque (born 1952), businessman
  • Ariane Ascaride (born 1954), actress
  • Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi (born 1961), world champion slalom canoe
  • Eric Cantona (born 1966), Manchester United and French national team football player
  • Patrick Fiori (born 1969), singer
  • Marc Panther (born 1970), member of the popular Japanese rock band Globe
  • Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), professional football player and captain of the France national football team
  • Romain Barnier (born 1976), freestyle swimmer
  • Sébastien Grosjean (born 1978), tennis player
  • Philippe Echaroux (born 1983), photographer
  • Mathieu Flamini (born 1984), football player
  • Rémy Di Gregorio (born 1985), cyclist
  • Jessica Fox (born 1994), French-born Australian canoe slalom , Olympic silver (K-1 slalom), world championships bronze (C-1) [84]

The following personalities died in Marseille:

Newsreel showing the murder of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and Foreign Minister Louis Barthou in Marseille (October 1934).
  • Blessed Anthony Frederic Ozanam , on September 8, 1853.
  • French poet Arthur Rimbaud , on November 10, 1891.
  • Brice Meuleman , 2nd Catholic Archbishop of Calcutta , on July 15, 1924.
  • King Alexander I of Yugoslavia was assassinated on 9 October 1934 in Marseilles along with French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou .

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Twin towns and sister cities

Marseille is currently officially twinned with 13 cities: [85]

  •  Antwerp , Belgium [85]
  •  Hamburg , Germany [85]
  •  Abidjan , Ivory Coast [85]
  •  Copenhagen , Denmark [85]
  •  Dakar , Senegal [85]
  •  Genoa , Italy [85]
  •  Glasgow , United Kingdom [85]
  •  Haifa , Israel [85]
  •  Kobe , Japan [85] [86]
  •  Marrakech , Morocco [85]
  •  Odessa , Ukraine [85]
  •  Piraeus , Greece [85] [87]
  •  Shanghai , China [85]

Partner cities

In addition, Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with cities all over the world: [88]

  •  Barcelona , Spain (1998) [88]
  •  Gdańsk , Poland (1992) [88] [89]
  •  Agadir , Morocco (2003) [88]
  •  Alexandria , Egypt (1990) [88]
  •  Algiers , Algeria (1980) [88]
  •  Bamako , Mali (1991) [88]
  •  Beirut , Lebanon (2003) [88]
  •  Casablanca , Morocco (1998) [88]
  •  Istanbul , Turkey (2003) [88]
  •  Jerusalem , Israel (2006) [88]
  •  Limassol , Cyprus [90]
  •  Lome , Togo (1995) [88]
  •  Lyon , France
  •  Meknes , Morocco (1998) [88]
  •  Montevideo , Uruguay (1999) [88]
  •  Nice , France
  •  Nîmes , France
  •  Rabat , Morocco (1989) [88]
  •  Saint Petersburg , Russia (2013) [88]
  •  Sarajevo , Bosnia-Herzegovina (2003) [88]
  •  Thessaloniki , Greece [87]
  •  Tirana , Albania (1991) [88] [91]
  •  Tripoli , Libya (1991) [88]
  •  Tunis , Tunisia (1998) [88]
  •  Valparaíso , Chile (2013) [88]
  •  Varna , Bulgaria (2007) [88]
  •  Yerevan , Armenia (1992) [88] [92] [93]

See also

  • List of movies set in Marseille
  • Marcel Pagnol
  • Marseille Marine Fire Battalion
  • Marseille soap



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  47. Jump up^ “The classic bouillabaisse must include the ‘three fish’: scorpion fish, gurnard, conger.” Michelin Green Guide -Côte dAzur, 1990, page 31
  48. Jump up^ [1]| History and traditional recipe of bouillabaisse on the site of the Marseilles Tourism Office
  49. ^ Jump up to:d David, Elizabeth (1999). French Provincial Cooking . Penguin Classics. ISBN  0-14-118153-2 .
  50. Jump up^ Wright, Clifford (2002). “Real Stew”. Harvard Common Press. ISBN  1-55832-199-3 .
  51. Jump up^ Jean-Louis André,Kitchens of the countries of France, Éditions du Chêne, 2001
  52. ^ Jump up to:b Trott 2007 , pp. 104.
  53. Jump up^ Fisher, MFK (1978). A Considerable Town . New York: Knopf. p. 150. ISBN  0-394-42711-4 .
  54. Jump up^ Root, Waverley (1992) [Originally published 1958]. The Food of France . New York: Vintage Books. p. 333. ISBN  0-679-73897-5 . panisso , made or chick-pea or maize flour, boiled into a lot of mush, then allowed to become more solid, when it is fried.
  55. Jump up^ Redman, Chris (5 June 2003). “Pass the Pastis” . France Today .
  56. Jump up^ Olney, Richard (1994). Lulu’s Provencal Table: the exuberant food and wine from Domaine Tempier Vineyard . New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 79. ISBN  0-06-016922-2 .
  57. Jump up^ Trott 2007, pp. 251-253.
  58. ^ Jump up to:b “The Highlights” . Marseille Tourist Office .
  59. Jump up^ “Presentation of CiPM” . International Poesie Center, Marseille (CiPM)(in French).
  60. Jump up^ “Christmas Time” . Marseille Tourist Office .
  61. Jump up^ Trott 2007, pp. 264-267.
  62. Jump up^ “MuCEM and J4” . Marseille Tourist Office . Retrieved 2 April 2015 .
  63. Jump up^ “Between the sky and the sea” . Mediterranean Villa . Retrieved 2 April2015 .
  64. Jump up^ “Regards of Provence Museum” . Regards de Provence Museum .
  65. Jump up^ “Opening of the Borely Castle, Museum of Decorative Arts, Earthenware and Fashion” . Marseille-Provence 2013 European Capital of Culture . June 2013. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015 . Retrieved 2 April2015 .
  66. Jump up^ “Museum of Contemporary Art of Marseille” . Saatchi Gallery . Retrieved 5 May 2013 .
  67. Jump up^ Trott 2007, p. 225.
  68. Jump up^ Trott 2007, pp. 256-257.
  69. Jump up^ “The Docks” . Marseille Tourist Office . Retrieved 27 May 2015 .
  70. ^ Jump up to:b Trott 2007 , pp. 261.
  71. Jump up^ “The Beaches” . Marseille Tourist Office . Retrieved 27 May 2015 .
  72. Jump up^ Trott 2007, pp. 195-197.
  73. Jump up^ “Origins of the Calanques National Park” . National Park of Calanques . Retrieved 27 May 2015 .
  74. Jump up^ Trott 2007, pp. 267.
  75. Jump up^ “Marseille-Provence breaks all records with 8.3 million passengers in 2012” . . Retrieved 12 March 2013 .
  76. Jump up^ “Official website of the Marseille tramway” . . Retrieved 1 February 2010 .
  77. Jump up^ “Website for Cycling” (in French). . Retrieved 1 February2010 .
  78. Jump up^ “Getting Around – Shuttles” (in French). 26 September 2004. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013 . Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  79. Jump up^ “Balls: Marseille world capital of petanque in 2012” . Provence. December 14, 2008 . Retrieved 12 March 2013 .
  80. Jump up^ “Sailing to Success” . Newsweek . 3 July 2006 . Retrieved 5 May 2009 .
  81. Jump up^ “Scotto Marseilles Operetta Agreement 4762107; Classical CD Reviews – November 2006 MusicWeb-International” . . Retrieved 5 May 2009 .
  82. Jump up^ Jessula, Georges (2003). “Darius Milhaud, Composer of Music” . Jewish Review : 140-144. Since their marriage in 1892, Milhaud’s parents lived in theGolden Armsin Aix-en-Provence, where their grew up; however he was delivered to the home of his maternal grandparents in Marseille.
  83. Jump up^ Milhaud, Darius (1998). “My happy life” Zurfluh. ISBN  2-87750-083-7 .
  84. Jump up^ “Jewish Australian Kayaker Jessica Fox Takes Silver Medal” . Jewish Telegraphic Agency . Retrieved 20 April 2015 .
  85. ^ Jump up to:n “Twin Cities” (PDF) . Official Website of the City of Marseille (in French). July 20, 2014 . Retrieved 6 October 2015 .
  86. Jump up^ “Kobe’s Sister Cities” . Kobe Trade Information Office . Archived from the original on 21 April 2013 . Retrieved 11 August 2013 .
  87. ^ Jump up to:b “Twinnings” (PDF) . Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece . Retrieved 25 August 2013 .
  88. ^ Jump up to:w “cooperation agreements” (PDF) . Official Website of the City of Marseille (in French) . Retrieved 6 October2015 .
  89. Jump up^ “Gdańsk Official Website: ‘Miasta partnerskie ‘ ” (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013 . Retrieved 11 July 2009 .
  90. Jump up^ “Limassol Twinned Cities” . Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality . Archived from the original on 1 April 2013 . Retrieved 29 July 2013 .
  91. Jump up^ “Twinning Cities: International Relations” (PDF) . Municipality of Tirana . Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011 . Retrieved 23 June2009 .
  92. Jump up^ “Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities” . Yerevan Municipality Official Website . Retrieved 4 November 2013 .
  93. Jump up^ ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ ԿԱՅՔ[Yerevan expanding its international relations] Yerevan Municipality Official Website (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 12 May 2013 . Retrieved 5 August 2013 .

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