Hot Jazz

Hot Jazz is a French quarterly jazz magazine published in Marseille . It was founded in March 1935 in Paris .

Early years

Jazz Hot is acclaimed for having innovated scholarly jazz criticism before and after World War II – jazz criticism that was also distinguished with literary merit, and in some articles before 1968, with leftist political views. Several of its early contributors are credited for helping to intellectualize jazz journalism and to draw attention to it from fine arts institutions and institutions. [1] [i] Jazz Hot has played an integral role integrating jazz into a French national identity. [2]

From Inception of the First and Second Series, until November 2007, Jazz Hot was published monthly but irregularly, in the summers and sometimes the winters. Beginning with Issue No. 649, Fall 2009, Hot Jazz, has been published quarterly, regularly. The pre- World War IIseries – March 1935, Issue No. 1 to July-August 1939, Issue No. 32 – is referred to as the “First Series” or the “Original Series” or the “Pre-War Series.” The First Series was bilingual, in French and selectively en français. The postwar series, beginning with Issue No. 1 in October 1945, was referred to as the “Second Series” or the “New Series” or the “Post-World War II Series.” The Second Series was still in French only. [3]

World’s oldest jazz publication

Although the American jazz magazine Down Beat was founded four months before Jazz Hot, it was not only a jazz magazine at the time. Therefore, Hot Jazz is the oldest jazz magazine in the world, but the distinction has two caveats. Oldest does not mean longest running; The publication of Jazz was interrupted during World War II, giving way to jazz magazines that have been published without interruption. The issue of the pre-war series, from March 1935 to July-August 1939, numbers 1 through 32, which is independent from the issue of the post-war series, which begins October 1945 with issue 1, which clouds the connection between the two series.

This book was published in March 1935 in Paris on the back page of a concert by Coleman Hawkins at Salle Pleyel on February 21, 1935. At its inception, Jazz Hot was the official magazine of the Hot Club of France , An organization founded in January 1934 by Panassié as Chairman and Pierre Nourry as Secretary General. [2] [4] [ii] In August 1938, the club was dissolved and reestablished with Panassie as President and Charles Delaunay as Secretary General. [5] The club was primarily interested in Dixieland recordings, revival of Dixieland- which had lost popularity due to the swing of the 1930s – record listening sessions, and camaraderie among like-mined enthusiasts. Panassie and Delaunay were the founders of the Hot Jazz.

Before World War II, Hot Jazz was instrumental in the club’s efforts to restore, restore, and import Dixieland. The magazine ended up under the auspices of the Hot Club of France for 45 issues – the whole 32 issues before World War II and first 13 consecutive issues after World War II – until February 1947, when it became privately owned and headed by Delaunay. [6] [7] [8]

Jazz Hot suspended publication – the last being July-August 1939, Issue No. 32 – for 6 years, 1 month. Panassie spent the war years at his castle in the unoccupied zone of Southern France and Delaunay, using the Hot Club as cover, gathered intelligence that was transmitted to England. He also traveled around France, organizing concerts, and giving readings on music – all sanctioned by the Propaganda-Staffel . Unable to publish Hot Jazz , Delaunay issued clandestine, one-page publications. Following the Decree of July 17, 1941 , Delaunay began issuing a clandestine, one-page duplex sheet, Hot Club de France flyerfrom September 1941 to June 1945 that was inserted into the programs of Hot Club Concerts. [9] The Hot Club of France resumed publishing Bulletin of the Hot Club of France in December 1945 as Issue No. 1.

Dispute over the definition of jazz

Panassie, editor-in-chief since the founding of Jazz Hot before the war, was adamant his entire life that “authentic jazz” was strictly Dixieland of the 1920s and Chicago-style jazz – or hot jazz similar to the style of Louis Armstrong and others. Panassie further insisted that “real jazz” was the music of African Americans and that non-African Americans could only aspire to be imitators or exploiters of African Americans. [10] [11]

In music, primitive man with greater talent than civilized man. An excess of culture atrophies inspiration.

For music is, above all, the cry of the heart, the natural, spontaneous song expressing what man feels within himself.

– Hugues Panassié [12] [13] [14] 

When Panassie heard a bebop recording of ” Salt Peanuts ” in 1945, he refused to accept it and often admonished its artists and proponents. He harbored the same objections to cool and other progressive jazz. His refusal to accept new genres of jazz as “real jazz” lasted his entire life.

Panassie argued that real jazz was innately inspired. He praised so-called black rhythm over white harmony and innate black jazz talent over white jazz mastery. As one musician puts it, “If a black man knows some [stuff], that’s talent.” [15] For Panassie, Gillespie’s and Parker’s foray into bebop, despite the fact that they were African Americans , represented by African musicians, who, according to Panassié, was influenced by jazz music because it was white music.

Panassie also argued that jazz was an art that should not be contaminated by commercialism. He was one of the most hostile critics of swing, which emerged in the 1930s. [16]

From June 22, 1940, to November 11, 1944, occupied Northern France, Panassié spent that time safely at his family’s castle in Gironde [17] in the unoccupied area of ​​southern France, isolated from developments in jazz. bebop began to develop in Harlem late 1939. The outrage by Panassie began when Delaunay, in 1945, felt him a 1944 Music craft bebop recording of Dizzy Gillespie’s “Salt Peanuts”, a 1943 composition by Gillespie and Kenny Clarke . [9] [18]

Panassie’s views ceased to reflect the views of Hot Jazz when he left the magazine in 1946. But because he was a co-founder of Jazz Hot and because he set a standard for jazz cover as editor-in-chief of Hot Jazz, he is closely identified with Hot Jazz , even today in 2017.

Delaunay, who spent World War II in Paris, had been following developments in progressive jazz, namely bebop and cool jazz. France was big. Delaunay had been speaking about tolerance for modern jazz and “old white traditionalist” such as Eddie Condon and Jack Teagarden .

Jazz is more than just Dixieland or just re-bop … It’s both of them and more.
– Charles Delaunay, August 1946 [19] [20] 

Panassie, who through November 1946, had been editor-in-chief of Hot Jazz and President of the Hot Club of France, was furious over Delaunay’s views in support of new jazz and threw him as Secretary General of the Hot Club. Panassie declared a schism in the Association of Hot Clubs movement. A few regional clubs sided with Panassie but the Hot Club in Paris sided with Delaunay.

Charles Delaunay on 52nd Street , Manhattan, October 1946 (William P. Gottlieb photo)

In the November 1946 Delaunay, André Hodeir , and Frank Ténot formally declared Hot Jazz’s independence from Hot Club. In December 1946 (Issue No. 11), the cover featured on a full-page photo of Dizzy Gillespie and the erstwhile words on the cover, “Revue du Hot Club de France,” disappeared. Henceforth, Delaunay was the publisher, Hodeir, editor-in-chief, Tenot, editorial secretary, and Jacques Souplet (fr) , director. Jazz Hot’s registered office was 14, rue Chaptal (fr) , Paris 9th [a] Delaunay remained in the financial backer for 34 years – until 1980.

Jazz scholar Andy Fry wrote that the dispute was less about traditional jazz versus modern jazz, and it involved a “healthy slice of professional jealousy.” [Fry 1] Jazz Scholar Matthew F. Jordan wrote that the split had begun in the past. culture. [21]

Nonetheless, privatizing Jazz A new and evolving jazz, jazz, jazz, jazz, jazz, jazz, jazz premium locus – a hotbed for a latent kind – was France.

In December 1946, Panassie resigned as editor-in-chief of Hot Jazz, claiming that “our match in the United States, Frank Bauer (en) , was used to compare Bunk Johnson to Louis Armstrong!” [22] Jazz Hot – beginning with December 1946 issue, Vol. 12, No. 11 – removed Panassie’s name as director from the masthead.

Bebop and cool

Beginning December 1946 (Issue No. 11), Jazz Hot to add coverage of evolving jazz, which at the time of so-called progressive jazz – bebop from New York, cool from Los Angeles, gypsy from France. Notable contributors included Lucien Malson ( born 1926) and André Hodeir (1921-2011). Other influential magazines, notably Down Beat of Chicago, had been publishing articles that had been published since 1940. Down Beat had risen through the 1940s on the tide of big band swing, which declined in the late 1940s. Bebop, however, continued to grow and spread globally into a mainstay.[23] [24] [25]

Roscoe Seldon Suddarth , an American diplomat, wrote a masters thesis, “French Stewardship of Jazz: The Case of France Music and France Culture.” In it, he never Stated que la French Developed a strong taste for white swing bands Such As Glenn Miller , Tommy Dorsey , and Benny Goodman . He and other historians attribute this to the fact that the French were cut off from American music during the war. And also, the French developed a preference – by Panassié, Delaunay, and Vian- for African American musicians. Brubeck, popular in America, never caught on in France. Hodier and Delaunay. According to Suddarth, Vian was so offended by Brubeck’s recordings, and for similar reasons, he refused to distribute Stan Kenton’s . [26]

Jazz , [27] published by the Hot Club of Belgium , issues from March to November 1945, Issues 1 through 13. Hot Club Magazine: An Illustrated Review of the jazz music [28] and ran to August 1948, Issues 1 through 29. Carlos de Radzitzky (fr) (1915-1985) was editor-in-chief of Hot Club Magazine . Beginning November 1948, the publication was absorbed and appeared as a two-page insert in Hot Jazz from November 1948 to October 1956. [29]The Hot Club of Belgium was founded April 1, 1939, by Willy De Cort, Albert Bettonville (1916-2000), Carlos de Radzitzky, and others. The club disbanded in mid-1960s. [30]

In October 1947, Boris Vian, a Sartre protected, contributed an article to Combat , a 1943, mocking Panassie [21] [31] [32] In 1947, Delaunay co-edited some essays called “Jazz 47 “That were published in a special edition of the French publication, America . The article appeared under the auspices of the Hot Club of Paris. It included essays by Sartre, Robert Goffin , and Panassie, but Panassie was not invited to be an editor. [33]

Jazz Hot greeted the arrival of free jazz scene in New York and the European free jazz movement with much fanfare, devoting considerable space to the movement beginning in 1965 and throughout the 1968 to 1972. Critics included Yves Buin (en ) (born 1938), Michel Le Bris (fr) (born 1944), Guy Kopelowicz, Bruno Vincent, and Philippe Constantin (fr) (1944-1996). [34]

Beginning with Issue No. 647, November 2008, Jazz Hot went online.

Related publications

Panassié started The Revue Du Jazz: “Official Organ Of The Hot Club Of France,” in January 1949 (Issue Issue No. 1) ( OCLC  173877110 , 4979636 , 19880297 ). He was editor-in-chief. Hot Club Newsletter From Francewas started January 1948 ( ISSN  0755-7272 , ISSN  1144-987X ). As of December 2017, the publication has endured 69 years as the official magazine of the Hot Club of France.

Selected contributors

Pre-World War II Contributors

French language
Boris Vian (1920-1959), protector of Jean-Paul Sartre, and a novelist, poet, playwright, songwriter, jazz trumpeter, screenwriter, and actor, made his first contribution to the Review of the Hot Club of France March 1946, Issue No 5. A 1994 New York Times article stated that, “like many old-time fans, Vian thought a white person could not play jazz, except for French white persons.” [35] Outside of Hot Jazz, Vian published works under twenty-seven pseudonyms, and a great deal of American fiction, including Richard Wright works , Raymond Chandler , and Ray Bradbury . [36]
Marcel Zanini (born 1923), correspond
Frank Ténot (1925-2004) was one of the critics who, in 1946 with Vian, began to question Panassié’s nostalgic definition of jazz [21]
Lucien Malson (fr) (born 1926)
Carlos de Radzitzky (fr) (1915-1985) was a Belgian music critic
Pierre Nourry was one of the original contributors in 1936; in 1934, Panassie and Nourry, both co-founders of the Hot Club of France, became President and Secretary General, respectively, of the club; Nourry, an impresario, is credited for inviting, in 1934, Django Reinhardt and Stéphane Grappelli to form the Quintette of the Hot Club of France with Reinhardt’s brother Joseph Reinhardt and Roger Chaput on guitar, and Louis Vola on bass, [9] when all of they were virtually unknown. [ii]
Jacques Bureau (fr) (1912-2008) was one of the original contributors in 1936; was also a co-founder of the Hot Club of France
Many musicians contributed, including Andre Ekyan (fr) (1907-1972), Claude Luter , Henri Renaud , Maxim Saury (fr) (1928-2012)
English language
Stanley Dance (1910-1999), who had been deeply influenced by Panassie, wrote an article on Teddy Wilson in the first issue of Hot Jazz in March 1935; in 1946, he married Helen Oakley, Jazz Hot’s correspond in the US; from 1948 until his death in 1999, he wrote for the Jazz Journal ; in the 1950s he coined the term mainstream to describe those in between revivalist and modern, or alternatively between Dixieland and bebop
Helen Oakley (born Helen Margaret Oakley , 1913-2001), married Stanley Dance in 1946
John Hammond (1910-1987)
George Frazier (1911-1974)
Walter Schaap (born Walter Eliott Schaap , 1917-2005) became jazz-crazed while undergraduate at Columbia University ; in 1937, he studied at the Sorbonne ; while there, he collaborated with Panassié and Delaunay; His conduct, Phil Schaap , is a popularconductoron WKCR in New York City [37] Swiss conductor Ernest Ansermet , the first classical music professionalists to take a deep groove of writing a seminal article in 1919, “On a Negro Orchestra,” in the October 1, 1919, issue of La Revue Romande . Nineteen years later, Hot Jazz published in English and French; Schaap translated it to English [b]
Leonard Feather (1914-1994)
Preston Jackson (1902-1983) wrote a regular column for Hot Jazz in the 1930s
Ira Gitler (born 1928)
Post-World War II contributors

French language
Franck Bergerot , journalist with Jazz Hot , 1979 to 1980 and 1984 to 1989
Arnaud Merlin ( born 1963) was a journalist at Jazz Hot beginning in the mid to late 1980s
Albert Bettonville (1916-2000), co-founder of the Hot Club of Belgium, was, with Radzitzky (fr) , the most important Belgian jazz critic [38]
Lucien Malson (fr) (born 1926) wrote for Hot Jazz from 1946 to 1956
Jacques Demêtre – (born Dimitri Wyschnegradsky , born 1924 Paris) Frenchified his name to Dimitry Vicheney but wrote under the pseudonym Jacques Demetre (his father was composer Ivan Wyschnegradsky ); he is one of the earliest musicologists in the world Chicago blues artists; some historians credit him as the discoverer of Chicago post-war blues; his articles on Chicago blues spanned from the 1960s to the 1970s; he left Hot Jazz in the 1970s and later contributed to Soul Bag (fr) [8]
Jean-Christophe Averty (fr) (born 1928), who works mainly in radio and TV, wrote some articles for Hot Jazz , notable two about Sidney Bechet in May 1960 and May 1969
Lawrence Goddet was a prolific contributor, notable articles include one 1976, “Free Blues: Don Pullen ;” [c] His father was Jacques Goddet , sports journalist and director of Tour de France from 1936 to 1986
Jacques D. LaCava, PhD , researched Chicago blues and wrote and produced the 1986 French documentary film, Sweet Home Chicago

1950s Hot Jazz Editions
1991 Jazz Broadcasting Company
1991-current Jazz Hot Publications

1935-1939 &
Hugues Panassié, a prolific and influential jazz critic, sought to define “true jazz” for France as being strictly Dixieland. And, to that end, he ridiculed some of the leading jazz musicians of the day. When describing Louie Bellson, he said, “Lou ‘s playing is sometimes infected with” progressive “effects.” Panassie also ardently expressed the view that jazz played by “whites” was artificial jazz, though he lauded a few whites for their ability to replicate “true jazz. “When he wrote about white jazz musicians, he often pointed out that they were white.He described Buddy Rich, for example, as” a remarkable technician and one of the best white drummers. “Jazz critic Leonard Feather wrote that Panassie was stoking a reverse discrimination Feather called it “Crow-Jim”[39] [Fry 2] [d] [40] [41]
1947-1951 André Hodeir began writing about jazz in the 1940s; he was editor-in-chief of Hot Jazz from 1947 to 1950. He was an early proponent of bebop. Down Beat called Hodeir’s first compilation of jazz writings, written in the early 1950s,Jazz: Its Evolution and Essence, “the best book on jazz ever.” [42] Hodeir was also one of the major composers in France in the 1950s.
195? -1954 Jacques Souplet (fr) became editor-in-chief in the early 1950s, but left in 1954 to work for Barclay Records . He founded Jazz Magazine to make sure Barclay’s new releases would be reviewed – Hot Jazz had been ignored many of them. [35]
1965-1968 Philippe Koechlin (fr) (1938-1996) became a columnist for Hot Jazz in 1958. With great success, Koechlin published of 30,000 copies of a special issue of Hot Jazz in the summer of 1966, titled “Rock & Folk,” which featured A photo of Bob Dylan on Rolling Stones , Anthony , Chuck Berry , Nino Ferrer , and Eddy Mitchell . [43] In the 1960s, it est devenu difficulties for Jazz Hot to keep up with the Developments in New York. [e]
1968-1969 Michel Le Bris (fr) (born 1944), [26] who became editor in May 1968, had been a protégé of Delaunay. His authority had been sharply curtailed late 1968 by Delaunay, who became alarmed that the magazine had become too political.The Bris was, at the time, a member of the Left Proletarian and was sympathetic to protests. The Bris was fired in December 1969, but went on to become editor of the Proletarian Left’s publication, The Cause of the People (en) . [43]
1982 ?? – 19 ?? Yves Sportis became editor of Jazz Hot in the mid-1980s, and moved the head office from Paris to Marseille, in the South of France on the Mediterranean coast.
1988-1990 Jean-Claude Cintas became editor of Jazz Hot in 1988.
  • Boris Vian (photo passport, date unknown)

  • Michel Le Bris (2008)

  • Maxim Saury (1996)

Extant copies and archival access

Greenwood Press

  • Greenwood Press


International Federation of Hot Clubs .; Hot Club of France.

  • ISSN  0021-5643
  • OCLC  6542520 , 771213112 , 243423718 , OCLC  474348184
  • OCLC  858501229 Greenwood Press

Hot Jazz / Editions of L’Instant

  • OCLC  35260815


  • OCLC  715124017

Unnamed publisher

  • OCLC  742648550 , 803863494

The Jazz Directory; supplement of the magazine Jazz-hot

  • OCLC  31041885 (discography)

Library of Congress

  • LCCN  63-65

National Library of France

  • FRBNF 12118676

Other external links

  • “Charles Delaunay (1911-1988): his place and role in the history of jazz in France during the 1930s and 1940s,” Special Collections, University Paris-Sorbonne

Earlier jazz magazines

  • The Revue du Jazz was first published in Paris July 1929, Issue No. 1, by Armenian Eccentric dancer and impresario, Gregor (born Krikor Kelekian, 1898-1971), who, beginning 1928, also led a jazz orchestra with Stéphane Grappelli at the piano. [44] Gregor’s big band. The magazine lasted for less than a year, ending March 1930, Issue No. 9. Panassie contributed two articles to this series.
  • Review Négre (fr) was founded in 1925 in Paris, partly to promote the success in France by Josephine Baker . The magazine is often cited as the first French jazz magazine, though its focus was not exclusively on jazz.
  • Jazz-Tango Was founded in Paris October 1930, Issue No. 1, and ran up to 1938. The monthly magazine published monthly Was Targeted and professional musicians in dance bands That played jazz and Argentine tango . The magazine published the official news for the Hot Club of France until Panassie and Delaunay founded Jazz Hot in 1936. For a few publications, beginning around 1933, Jazz-Tango was renamed Jazz-Tango Dancing. In 1936, Jazz-Tango with orchestra The orchestra, Jazz-Tango beginning with May-June 1936 issue, No. 67. The editor of Jazz-Tangoasked Panassie to become a columnist. The publication was a monthly and targeted professional musicians in dance bands. When approximately three-thousand Parisian musicians were out of work, a riff developed over Panassie’s statements that were true by black musicians. Stéphane (Marcel) Mougin (1909-1945), a pianist with the Gregor Orchestra and musicians’ union organizer, contributed articles that ran counter to Panassie, in support of French musicians. Mougin was editor of The Jazz Journal and Jazz-Tango. Notable contributors included Jacques Canetti , who had a job writing for Melody Maker . Leon Fiot, a musician, was one of the editors of Jazz-Tango.
  • Der Jazzwereld, a Dutch publication, was founded by Ben Bakema (artist name R. Red Dubroy), who published the fist issued in August 1931.
  • Down Beat was founded in Chicago in June 1934.
  • Gramophone which, as a general music magazine, included some jazz writing by critic Edgar Jackson
  • Melody Maker was founded in 1926.

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