Desiree Clary


Bernardine Eugenie Desiree Clary (8 November 1777 – 17 December 1860), was Queen of Sweden and Norway as the consort of King Charles XIV John , a French General and founder of the House of Bernadotte , mother of Oscar I , and one-time fiancee of Napoleon Bonaparte . She officially changed her name to Desideria , which she did not use herself. [1]

Biography

Background and education

Desiree Clary was born in Marseille , France , the daughter of François Clary (Marseille, St. Ferreol, 24 February 1725 – Marseille , 20 January 1794), a wealthy silk manufacturer and merchant, by his second wife (26 June 1759) Françoise Rose Somis (Marseille, St. Ferreol, August 30, 1737 – Paris , January 28, 1815). Her father had been previously married at Marseilles, 13 April 1751 to Gabrielle Fléchon (1732 – 3 May 1758).

Desiree had a sister and brother to whom she remained very close all her life. Her sister, Julie Clary , married Joseph Bonaparte , and later became Queen of Naples and Spain . Her brother, Nicholas Joseph Clary, was created 1st Count Clary. He married Anne Jeanne Rouyer, by whom he had a daughter named Zenaida Francoise Clary (Paris, 25 November 1812 – Paris, 27 April 1884). Zénaïde would marry Napoléon Berthier de Wagram, 2nd Duke of Wagram (10 September 1810 – 10 February 1887), the son of Marshal Berthier , and have several children, among the first wife of Joachim, 4th Prince Murat .

As a child, Désirée received the convent schooling usually given to daughters of the upper classes in pre-revolutionary France. However, when she was barely eleven years old, theFrench Revolution of 1789 took place, and convents were closed.[2] Désirée returned to live with her parents, and was perforce home-schooled thereafter. Later, her education would be described as shallow.[3] It has been observed by several historians that Désirée was devoted to her birth-family her entire life.

Meeting the Bonapartes

In 1794, Désirée’s father died. Shortly after, it was discovered that in the years before the revolution, he had made an appeal to be ennobled, a request that had been denied. Because of this, Desiree’s brother Etienne, now the head of the family and her guardian, was arrested in his father’s place by the revolutionary authorities. According to the traditional story, according to whom? ] Desiree accompanied her sister-in-law Suzanne to the office of people commissar Albitte to appeal for her brother’s release. In the waiting room, however, she fell asleep, and was forgotten by Suzanne, who had succeeded in her mission and had excitedly returned home. She was discovered by Joseph Bonaparte, who accompanied her home. Joseph was then introduced to her family. Joseph and Désirée were engaged, and the brother of Joseph, Napoleon Bonaparte , was also introduced to the family. Reportedly, it was Napoleon who suggested that Joseph should be more concerned with Julie instead, while he should be interested in Desiree; this suggestion had the approval of all four involved. Joseph married Julie, and Désirée were engaged to Napoleon Bonaparte on April 21, 1795. In 1795-1797, Desiree lived with her mother in Genoa , where her brother-in-law Joseph had a diplomatic mission; they were joined by the Bonaparte family. In 1795, Napoleon became involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais. He broke off his engagement with Désirée on September 6, and he married Josephine in 1796.

In 1797, Désirée went to live in Rome with her sister Julie and her brother-in-law Joseph, who was the French ambassador to the Papal States . Her relationship with Julie remained very intense and deep. She was once married to Mathurin-Leonard Duphot , a French general. The commitment was made by Napoleon, who wished to compensate with a marriage, and Duphot was attracted by her dowry and position as sister-in-law of Napoleon. She agreed with some reluctance, because it was known that Duphot had a long-term partner and a son. On December 30, 1797, on the eve of their marriage, Duphot was killed in an anti-French riot outside of their residence Palazzo Corsini in Rome. [3]

Ms. Bernadotte

After her return to France, Desiree lived with Julie and Joseph in Paris. In Paris, she lived in the circle of the family Bonaparte, who had broken their commitment. She herself did not like Josephine, but she was not well known, but she was not considered to have any hostility toward Josephine as did the members of the Bonaparte family. She received a proposal from General Junot , but turned down because it was given by Marmont . [4] Desiree eventually puts her future spouse, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte , another French general and politician. They were married in a secular ceremony at Sceauxon 17 August 1798. [4] In the marriage contract, Désirée was given economic independence. [3] On July 4, 1799, she gave birth to their only child, to her, Oscar .

During the coup of 1799 , when Napoleon took power, Desiree was exposed to the Bonaparte family, who wanted Bernadotte to support Napoleon, and the Bernadotte faction, who wanted to take action for himself. Both sides tried to use her to influence Bernadotte and extract information from him about his attitudes. Aware of this, he did not tell her of his plans, but he was late to say that it was because of the family that he had been passive during the coup. During the coup, the couple were forced to take refuge in the villa villa of General Sarrazin at Villeneuve St. Georges: Desiree apparently dressed as a man during the escape. She kept in touch with Julie all the time, and Napoleon accepted Bernadotte apparently because of her.

In 1800, Désirée was present at a failed assassination attempt on Napoleon, when a bomb exploded between the carriage of Napoleon and the carriage where she and Caroline Bonaparte were sitting. Desiree was not interested in politics, but her connections were made in the hands of her husband and Napoleon, who both used her to influence each other and to pass messages. [3] In 1801, Bernadotte had his interference in favor of General Ernouf through Joseph. [4] In 1802, a conspiracy against Napoleon was discovered. Napoleon suspected Bernadotte, and interrogated Désirée, who had not been involved, but he had met Moreauin their home and mumbled his name to the word conspiracy in his sleep. [4] After this, Napoleon appointed Bernadotte governor of Louisiana . The couple was ready to sail when the appointment was retracted.

On May 19, 1804, her spouse was made Marshal of France, which gave her the equivalent position. However, she was described as indifferent to social position, like her sister Julie. Napoleon gave her an allowance, and a house in Rue d’Anjou Saint-Honoré, where she resided for the rest of her life when in Paris. At the Coronation of Napoleon on December 2, 1804, she followed Josephine, who was carrying her sisters-in-law, carrying the handkerchief and veil of Josephine on a pillow. [4]

His spouse was a leading general in the French army under Napoleon, and normally absent from Paris. He liked to be a member of high society, and had his take lessons in dance and etiquette from an instructor Montel. Desiree had a good relationship with the Bonaparte Imperial family. On the request of her spouse, she did not have a lady-in-waiting, and did not participate in short life. She lived in the circle of the Bonaparte and Clary family, where she enjoyed music, theater and dance, while at La Grange and Auteuil . It is believed that she had a romantic relationship with the Corsican Angel Chaippe, who often acted as her escort. [3] [4]She is a pretty dancer, but fairly anonymous. She lives in Paris during her absence. She informed him about political events in Paris by correspondence. [4]

During Bernadotte’s time as governor of the Hanseatic cities and governor of Hanover , Desiree visited him in Hamburg with her son. each time she returned to Paris. She was not happy living anywhere but Paris. In 1806, she was forced to accompany Empress Josephine to Mainz . When it was made Prince of Pontecorvo in 1806, Desiree worriedly asked if she would be forced to leave Paris, but was happy when she would not. [3] In 1807, she visited Bernadotte in Spandau and in Marienburg in East Prussia, where she nursed him during his illness.

In August 1810, Bernadotte was elected heir to the throne of Sweden . Described first thought Pontecorvo: “I thought, that it was at it had been with Ponte Corvo, from where we would have a title. ” [4]She was later to admit that she had never had any idea about it, and that she was in despair when she was told that this time, she would be expected to leave Paris. Desiree delayed her departure and did not leave with her spouse. She was delighted with the position of the princess, and she was frightened by the stories of her reluctant French servants, who tried to discourage her from leaving by saying that North Pole filled with Polar bears . [4] Finally, she left Paris and traveled by Hamburg and Kronborg in Denmark over the Öresund to Helsingborg in Sweden.

Crown Princess

On December 22, 1810, Désirée arrived with her Oscar in Helsingborg in Sweden, and on January 6, 1811, she was introduced to the Swedish royal court at the Royal Palace in Stockholm. Mistress of the Dresses Caroline Lewenhaupt and the maid of honor Mariana Koskull . The Swedish climate was reportedly a shock to her: she arrived during the winter, and she hated the snow so much that she cried. [3] Her spouse had been admitted to the Swedish throne, and on their arrival, it was also necessary, and was taken from Lutheran . There was, in accordance with the Tolerance Act, no question that it should be converted, and a Catholic chapel was arranged for her use. [4] Desiree was not religious, [4] but the Catholic masses served to remind her of France, and she celebrated the birth of the son of Napoleon, the King of Rome , by a Te Deum in her chapel.

Desiree was unable to adapt to the requirements of formal court practice or participation in the representational duties which were required of her in the position of Crown Princess. Désirée’s French entourage, especially Elise la Flotte , made her unpopular during her stay in Sweden by encouraging her to complain about everything. [1] She did not have a good relationship with Queen Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte , though the Dowager Queen Sophia Magdalenawas reportedly kind to her. In her famous diaries, Queen Charlotte describes her as good as she is, generous and pleasant when she wants to be, but also an immature “spoiled child”, who hated all demands and was unable to handle any form of representation, and as “a woman in every inch” who has not complied, and “accordingly, she is not liked.” [5]

Desiree left Sweden in the summer of 1811 under the name of Countess of Gotland , and finally returned to Paris, leaving her husband behind her. She said that the Swedish nobility has been treated as if they were made of ice: “Do not talk with me from Stockholm, I’m getting a cold as soon as I hear the word.” [6] In Sweden, her husband took a mistress, the noble Mariana Koskull .

Under the name Countess of Gotland, Désirée officially resided incognito in Paris. However, her house at Anjou Street was watched by the secret police, and her letters were read by them. She had no short, just her lady companion. Elise la Flotte to assist her as hostess at her receptions, and she mostly associated with a circle of close friends and family. Her receptions were frequented by Talleyrand and Fouche , who on the mission of Napoleon tried to influence her consort through her. [4] In 1812, she acted as mediator when Napoleon negotiated with her consort through the Duke of Bassano. Where did it come from? Where did it come from? How did it come about? WAS. [4] During the meeting between her consort and the Russian Tsar in Åbo in 1812, the Tsar suggested her husband and sister, but her consort turned down the proposal. [4]

Before his attack on Russia, Napoleon asked Désirée to leave France. She made herself ready to leave, but managed to avoid it. As she was born in 1813. During the summer of 1813, she retired to the country estate of Julie, Mortefontaine, with Catharina of WürttembergThe New Year’s Eve of 1814. The 31 March 1814, on the arrival of the allied armies in Paris after the defeat of Napoleon, Julie. She puts her spouse, who was among the allied generals to arrive in Paris. She did not return to him when he left, however, which attracted attention. When asked about the Swedish Count Jacob of the Gardie at Mortefontaine, she answered that she was afraid that she would be divorced if she did not. [4]

On May 14, 1814, she was introduced to Louis XVIII of France , whose court she often visited the following years. After the Hundred Days in 1815, the members of the Bonaparte Family were exiled from France. This included her sister Julie, and when Louis XVIII expressed a wish for a favor, she regularly asked for an exception for Julie and allowed her to live in Paris. In 1816, she made plans to return to Sweden, Julie, along with her. Her husband thought this unwise, as Julie was the wife of a Bonaparte and her presence might have been taken into account. In the end, this came to nothing. [7] At this point, she often spent time withGermaine de Stael and Juliette Recamier . In 1817, Desiree’s husband placed a Count of Montrichard in his household as to his report. [3]

Queen consort

In 1818, her husband became King of Sweden , which made Désirée Queen. However, she remained in France, officially for health reasons, which caused speculation in the press in Paris and by her visitors. After she became Queen, the Swedish Queen Dowager wrote to her and suggested that she should have Swedish ladies-in-waiting, but she said that it was unnecessary for her to have a short while she still resided incognito. Desiree officially kept herself incognito and did not host any court, but she kept in touch with the Swedish embassy, ​​regularly visited the court of Louis XVIII and sometimes saw Swedes at her receptions, which she hosted on Thursdays and Sundays, unofficially in her role as Queen, though she still used the title of Countess.

During this period, she fell in love with the French prime minister, the Duc de Richelieu , which attracted attention. [4] According to one version, she fell in love with Louis XVIII in the most charming way possible. True or not, she has not been answered by Richelieu, who referred to her as his “crazy Queen”. [4] According to Laure Junot , she did not speak to her, but she did not go anywhere. [4] She followed him around until his death in 1822. [3]Another version of her behavior towards him has been that it has been given to him by Richelieu for political reasons, but that his attitude has been too embarrassed to do so. [4]

During the summer of 1822, her Oscar made a trip to Europe to inspect prospective brides, and it was decided they should meet. As France was deemed unsuitable, they put on Aachen and a second time in Switzerland. In 1823, Désirée returned to Sweden with her son’s bride, Josephine of Leuchtenberg. It was intended to be visited, but it was to remain in Sweden for the rest of her life. Desiree and Josephine arrived in Stockholm 13 June 1823. Three days later, the royal court and the government was presented to Desiree, and 19 June, she participated in the official welcoming of Josephine and witnessed the wedding. – A well-known story is that it was a warm and dry period, so the peasants turning up to see her were coaxed into greeting her “Vi vill ha regn!” (“We want rain!” In Swedish), which sounds very similar to “Long live the Queen!” (“Long live the Queen!”). [8]

On August 21, 1829, she was crowned Queen of Sweden in Storkyrkan in Stockholm. Her coronation had been suggested to her return, but her consort had postponed it because of fear. There was actually a suggestion that it should be converted to the Lutheran faith before its coronation, but in the end, the question was not considered important enough to press, and it was crowned all the same. She was crowned at her own request after having pressed Charles John with a wish that she should be crowned: “otherwise she would be no proper Queen”. [9]A reason for this is believed to be that of protection against divorce. [10] Later in life she described how she had been during her coronation.[4] She was, however, never crowned in Norway because of her status as a Catholic. Desiree had asked to be crowned in Norway in 1830, but this was not possible. She was the first commoner to become Queen of Sweden since Karin Månsdotter in 1568.

Charles XIV John was somewhat distant, but friendly. Charles John treated with some irritability, while she behaved very freely and informally to him. The court was astonished by her informal behavior. He could not be more than one of his favorites Count Magnus Brahe . [4]Every morning, she visited her husband in her nightgown, which was seen as shocking, because her husband usually conferred with members of the council of state at that time. Because of their difference in clothes, they lived together. Because it was always late at dinner, for example, it stopped with its meals, and it was preferred to have meals alone, it was not uncommon for the nobles of the court to sit alone at the dinner table, without the royal couple present. [3]

There is nothing to indicate that she has any political influence, and she was praised for her lack of interference in politics. Whenever Charles John became agitated, she was known to be able to calm down with the one firm word: “Bernadotte!” [4] One such anecdote was when Charles John, known for his hot temperament, raged about how he would punish some political advisories in various ways. For all the punishment he stated, he said: “He could not hurt a cat!” [4] She was also said to say: “Oh, I like to hear you, you who do not have the heart to wring the neck of a cat!” [4]

The 1830s were a period when she did her best to be active as a Queen, a role she had never wanted to play. The decade is described as a time of balls and parties, more than had been seen at the Swedish court since the days of King Gustav III, aim Désirée soon grew tired of her royal status and wanted to return to France. However, her husband did not allow it. As Queen, Desiree is known for her eccentric clothes. She is known to be agitated and spouse, and she is a member of the family. Normally, she’s retired in the morning, and awoke at two o’clock in the afternoon. Before she went to bed, she took a “walk by carriage” during these trips, which were often inconvenient because of the time. When the weather was bad, his carriage drove round the court yard of the royal palace instead. It was normal for her to arrive when the show had ended.

Desiree was interested in fashion, a lot of interest and pride in her hair and wore low cut dresses until an advanced age. She enjoyed dance: her standard question was short presentations were the debutantes liked to dance, and she even danced well during her old age. Her conversations were mainly about her old life in France. Her niece, Marcelle Tascher of the Pagerie , served as her Mistress of the Dresses, as well as her main company, as well as her old life. After her niece HAD returned to France, she Often socialized with the rich merchant Carl Abraham Arfwedson , Who HAD beens once a guest in her childhood home. [4]She never became very popular at the royal court, where she was regarded with some snobbery because of her past as a merchant’s daughter and a republican. She never learned to speak the Swedish language, and there are many anecdotes of her attempts to speak the language.

As her daughter-in-law, Desiree was a Catholic, but in contrast to Josephine, who was a devout and practicing Catholic, Desiree was not religious. [4] Her devout Catholic daughter-in-law insisted that she waits for mass and confession. [3] She did not wait to see you, but she said she was not going to confess. When the priest started to preach and reprimand her, she silenced him and said that such talk irritated her nerves. [4]

Her favorite summer residence was Rosersberg Palace , where she kept chickens for pets, but as Rosersberg was remote, she more often stayed at Drottningholm Palace or Haga Palace. She also often visited Swedish spas, such as Ramlösa spa. Among the other more famous ladies-in-waiting were the Norwegians Kathinka Falbe and Jana Falbe. Because of Desiree ‘s eccentric habits, they are known as “Strapatsfröknarna” (approximately “Miss Calamity”). [3] During her stays at Rosersberg Palace and In Spite of her fear of the dark, she Took walks in the park at night and Instructed one lady-in-waiting to walk in front of her dressed in white to keep bats away from her . [1]

Desiree was also Queen of Norway. She visited Norway in a couple of times, the first being time in 1825. [3] In Norway, she is most known to the protector of Eugenia stiftelse [The Eugenia Foundation] for poor girls in Oslo of Maria Schandorff , which she protected and often visited from 1828 until 1847.

Queen Dowager

In 1844, Charles XIV John died and Desideria became Queen Dowager. Her son, the new King Oscar I, allowed her to stay in the Royal Palace, so she would not have to change her clothes. Queen Josephine, Queen Josephine, Queen Josephine, Queen Josephine, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC, QUEBEC Queen Josephine all, but all of them still need me. ” [4] She was a considerate and well liked employer among her staff. One notable member of her life was Countess Clara Bonde , who was treated as a personal friend and served the queen from her to Sweden until her death.

Desiree did not agree, but it was said: “Her charity was considerable but took place in silence”. One example was that she supported poor upper-class women by giving them sewing work. She also acted as official protector of charitable institutions, such as the Women’s Society Girl School . The same year she became a widow, she was described by the French diplomat Bacourt: “Royalty has not altered her-unfortunately, for the reputation of the Crown.We have always been and will always remain an ordinary merchant woman, surprised over her position , and surprisingly to find upon a throne. ” [4] He also added that she was a goodhearted woman.

After her return to Sweden, Desiree had kept her house at Rue d’Anjou in Paris awaiting her return. It was managed by her sister and her old French staff, while her business in France was managed by her nephew, Vicomte of Clary. In May 1853, after Napoleon III had made himself French Emperor, she made preparations to return to Paris. Everything was ready, and she was escorted to her ship in Karlskrona by her grandson Oscar. Her fear of sea travels, however, made it impossible for her to leave. [4]

During the last years, she was worried about Paris because of the plans of the city architect Haussmann , but Napoleon III made an exception for her and allowed for her house to stand, which it did until one year after her death. [4] Desiree had a fairly harmonious relationship with her daughter-in-law, and felt sympathy for her grandson’s bride, Louise of the Netherlands .

After becoming a widow, she grew up and more eccentric. She went to bed in the morning, got up in the evening, ate breakfast at night, and drove around in a carriage through the streets, in the courtyard, or wandered around the corridors of the sleeping castle with a light. [3] An anecdote of this: in 1843, a palace guard the Queen fully dressed on the palace in the middle of the night. When he came home to his wife, he said that he was lazy in comparison to the Queen, who had gotten up hours before sunrise. [1] He thought that the Queen Dowager was in the future, but in fact, she was not going to be bedridden.

Desiree enjoyed making unannounced visits, and sometimes she would take them to the palace and give them sweets; she was not able to engage in any real conversation, but she would say “Kom, kom!” (Swedish for “Come come!”) [3]

There are stories about people having been awakened by her when she drove through the streets at night. The carriage sometimes stopped; she would sleep for a while, and then she would wake up and carry on. Sometimes she drove in circles around the royal palace. This garment was called “Kring Kring” (Swedish for “around and around”). [1]

On the last day of her life, she entered the Royal Swedish Opera just after the performance had ended. Desiree died in Stockholm on December 17, 1860.

Ancestry

Her paternal grandparents were Joseph Clary ( Marseille , 22 November 1693 – Marseille, 30 August 1748), her son of Jacques Clary and his wife Catherine Barosse, the grandson of Antoine Clary and wife Marguerite Canolle, and the maternal grandson of Angelin Barosse and his wife Jeanne Pélissière, and wife (in Marseille, 27 February 1724) Françoise Agnès Ammoric (Marseille, March 6, 1705 – Marseille, December 21, 1776), daughter of François Ammoric and his wife Jeanne Boisson.

Her maternal grandparents were Joseph Ignace Somis (c.1910 – Marseille, April 29, 1750), son of Jean Louis Somis and his wife Françoise Bouchard, and wife (in Marseille, May 27, 1736) Catherine Rose Soucheiron (Marseille, January 11 1696 – Marseille, 18 February 1776), daughter of François Soucheiron and his wife Anne Cautier.

Ancestors of Desiree Clary

Titles

  • 8 November 1777 – 17 August 1798: Mademoiselle Bernardine Eugénie Désirée Clary
  • 17 August 1798 – 5 June 1806: Mrs Bernadotte
  • 5 June 1806 – 26 September 1810: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Pontecorvo
  • 26 September 1810 – 5 November 1810: Her Royal Highness Princess John Baptist Jules of Pontecorvo, Princess of Sweden
  • 5 November 1810 – 4 November 1814: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Sweden
    • in France: Summer of 1811 – 13 June 1823: Countess of Gotland (Countess of Gotland)
  • 4 November 1814 – 5 February 1818: Her Royal Highness The Princess Crown of Sweden and Norway
  • 5 February 1818 – 8 March 1844: Her Majesty The Queen of Sweden and Norway
  • 8 March 1844 – 17 December 1860: Her Majesty The Dowager Queen of Sweden and Norway

Arms and monogram

 


Desideria’s Coat Of Arms
of Sweden and Norway
Royal Monogram of Queen Desideria

 

In fiction

Desiree Clary has been the subject of several novels and movies. [11]

  • Desiree (1951), by Annemarie Selinko , a novel in the form of a mock autobiography . It was originally published in German, by Kiepenheuer & Witsch, and became a bestseller worldwide. It has been translated into Chinese, English, French, Italian, Greek, Hungarian, Spanish, Persian, and Turkish.
  • The fabulous Destiny of Desiree Clary (also Miss Desiree ) (1942), a French film by Sacha Guitry .
  • Désirée (1954), an American film based on Selinko’s book, with Jean Simmons and Marlon Brando .
  • The Bernadotte Album (1918), a “screen treatment” by John B. Langan on Clary and Joséphine (née Marie Tascher), which purported to be “Founded on the memoirs of Marie Tascher and Désirée Clary.”

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to:e Lars Elgklou (1995). Familjen Bernadotte. In släktkrönika. (The Bernadotte family, A family chronicle.) (In Swedish). Skogs Boktryckeri Trelleborg. p. 21. ISBN  91-7054-755-6 .
  2. Jump up^ Political and Literary Review: Blue Magazine . p. 576 (English).
  3. ^ Jump up to:o Lars O. Lagerqvist (1979). Bernadotternas drottningar (The queens of the Bernadotte dynasty) (in Swedish). Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN  91-0-042916-3 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Lindwall, Lilly: (Swedish) Desideria. Bernadotternas anmoder.[Desideria. The Ancestral Mother of the Bernadottes] Stockholm. Åhlén och Åkerlunds Förlag A.-B.(1919)
  5. Jump up^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Elizabeth Hedvig IX 1807-1811) (in Swedish). PA Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 636-637, 654-655, 705.
  6. Jump up^ Lars Elgklou (1978). Bernadotte. Historian – eller historier – om en familjen. Stockholm: Askild & Kärnekull Förlag AB.
  7. Jump up^ Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX (The diaries of Elizabeth Hedwig Charlotte IX) (in Swedish). PA Norstedt & Söners förlag.
  8. Jump up^ ArticlebyRiksarkivet
  9. Jump up^ Anne-Marie Riiber (1959). Drottning Sophia. (Queen Sophia) Uppsala: JA Lindblads Förlag. page 149. ISBN (Swedish)
  10. Jump up^ Robert Braun (1950). Silvertronen, in Josefine bok om drottning Sverige-Norge av. (The Silver Throne.) Stockholm: Norlin Förlag AB. ISBN (Swedish) page 145
  11. Jump up^ Michael Sibalis (2014). Napoleon’s Fiancee: The Fabulous Destiny of Desiree Clary

References

  • Désirée Clary after his unpublished correspondence with Bonaparte, Bernadotte and his family , Gabriel Girod de l’Ain, Paris: Hachette (1959).
  • Lars O. Lagerqvist (1979). Bernadotternas drottningar (The queens of the Bernadotte dynasty) (in Swedish). Albert Bonniers Förlag AB. ISBN  91-0-042916-3 .
  • Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX (The diaries of Elizabeth Hedwig Charlotte IX) (in Swedish). PA Norstedt & Söners förlag.
  • Lars Elgklou (1995). Familjen Bernadotte. In släktkrönika. (The Bernadotte family, A family chronicle.) (In Swedish). Skogs Boktryckeri Trelleborg. ISBN  91-7054-755-6 .
  • Lindwall, Lilly: (Swedish) Desideria. Bernadotternas anmoder. [Desideria. The Ancestral Mother of the Bernadottes] Stockholm. Åhlén och Åkerlunds Förlag A.-B. (1919)
  • Desideria, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (SBL)
  • Desideria, Norsk biografisk leksikon

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